iron sites in africa

12 Dec iron sites in africa

), Ferrous metallurgy § Africa south of the Sahara, "Iron and its influence on the prehistoric site of Lejja", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Iron_metallurgy_in_Africa&oldid=992870367, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Killick, D. 2004. Review Essay: "What Do We Know About African Iron Working?". Even the bolts, screws and nails that keep the structures together are fabricated with steel. and D. Miller (2014). de Maret, P and F. Nsuka (1977) History of Bantu metallurgy: some linguistic aspects. Recently Asked Questions What themes do you see emerging in the Tao Te Ching? During this time, the Oklo reactor zone was … Some Early Iron Age Sites in Southern and Western Zambia. How much iron ore is left in the world? Furnaces used in the 19th and 20th centuries ranges from small bowl furnaces, dug down from the ground surface and powered by bellows, through bellows-powered shaft furnaces up to 1.5 m tall, to 6.5m natural-draft furnaces (i.e. Relatively little metallography of ancient African iron tools has yet been done, so this conclusion may perhaps be modified by future work. [29] In a 2018 study, Archaeologist Augustin Holl also argues that an independent invention is most likely.[4]. La Niece, S., Hook, D., and Craddock, P., (eds). Killick, D. J. Many African countries have vast iron ore deposits that are not yet mined. By the late 1960s some surprisingly early radiocarbon dates had been obtained for iron smelting sites in both Nigeria and central Africa (Rwanda, Burundi), reviving the view that iron-making was independently invented in sub-Saharan Africa. Unlike bloomery iron-workers in Europe, India or China, African metalworkers did not make use of water power to blow bellows in furnaces too large to be blown by hand-powered bellows. Vansina, J. Smelting of magnetite and magnetite-ilmenite ores in the northern Lowveld, South Africa, ca. A much wider range of bloomery smelting processes has been recorded on the African continent than elsewhere in the Old World, probably because bloomeries remained in use into the 20th century in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, whereas in Europe and most parts of Asia they were replaced by the blast furnace before most varieties of bloomeries could be recorded. Iron Age farmers have inhabited the eastern half of South Africa for most of the last two thousand years. Because iron ore is the key ingredient of steel, and nearly 95% of the metal used every year around the world is steel – iron is the most frequently used metal in the world. Metal production sites in Sri Lanka used the elements by employing wind furnaces driven by the monsoon winds typical of the area. Shaw, T., Sinclair, P., Bassey, A., Okpoko, A (eds). They lived there from about 1000 AD to 1300 AD, and around 1500 Iron Age subsistence farmers also settled there. The earliest sites in the Limpopovalley are securely dated to the fourth century AD. [23] Clist also raised questions about the unusually good state of preservation of metallic iron from the site. This would make Oboui the oldest iron-working site in the world, and more than a thousand years older than any other dated evidence of iron in Central Africa. Shinnie, P.L. 19-36. "New Evidence on Early Iron-Smelting from Southeastern Nigeria". There is also evidence that carbon steel was made in Western Tanzania by the ancestors of the Haya people as early as 2,300-2,000 years ago by a complex process of "pre-heating" allowing temperatures inside a furnace to reach 1300 to 1400 °C.[43][44][45][46][47][48]. 293). Classement comparatif et tendances", in, Martinelli, B., 2004, "On the Threshold of Intensive Metallurgy – The choice of Slow Combustion in the Niger River Bend (Burkina Faso and Mali)". A Then, one day, they were smelting (making) iron. "Changing Perspectives on Traditional Iron Production in West Africa". Collet, D.P., 1993. Before the Iron Age in southern Africa most people were nomadic and survived by hunting wild animals and gathering wild plants. Ironworkers became experts in rituals to encourage good production and to ward off bad spirits, including song and prayers, plus the giving of medicines and even sacrifices. This was discovered when ironware was excavated from archaeological sites in Anatolia. It is possible that this also led to tradesmen specialising in transporting and trading iron (Barros 2000, pg152). 2005, p. 288 in Herbert 1993:ch.6). An ancient city of palaces, iron production and pyramids along the east bank of the Nile, Meroë dates back to 800 BC. [3] Evidence also exists for earlier iron metallurgy in parts Nigeria, Cameroon, and Central Africa, possibly from as early as around 2,000 BC. They were directly ancestral to the Bantu-speaking peoples who form the majority of South Africa… Steel weapons like the falcata in the Iberian Peninsula were also produced in early years. van der Merwe, N. J. [51], MetalAfrica: a Scientific Network on African Metalworking, Archaeological evidence for the origins and spread of iron production in Africa, Duncan E. Miller and N.J. Van Der Merwe, 'Early Metal Working in Sub Saharan Africa', Minze Stuiver and N.J. Van Der Merwe, 'Radiocarbon Chronology of the Iron Age in Sub-Saharan Africa'. The natural-draft furnace was the one African innovation in ferrous metallurgy that spread widely. In the 1960s it was suggested that iron working was spread by speakers of Bantu languages, whose original homeland has been located by linguists in the Benue River valley of eastern Nigeria and Western Cameroon. By this date the … Paris, F., A. This city rose during Africa's Iron Age. Kelley (Eds.). The international consumption of iron ore is growing by around 10% every year, and the main consumers are Japan, China, Korea, the European Union and the United States. Buleli, N'S., 1993. This funded both the conference on early iron in Africa and the Mediterranean[17] and a volume, published by UNESCO, that generated some controversy because it included only authors sympathetic to the independent-invention view.[18]. In the southern regions of sub-Saharan Africa, the Bantu iron age migration continues, confining the San hunter-gatherer peoples ever further south. The advent of iron in Africa. Their powerful knowledge allowed them to produce materials on which the whole community relied. [7] This in turn has been questioned by more recent research. Iron smelting and forging technologies may have existed in West Africa among the Nok culture of Nigeria as early as the sixth century B.C. Around two billion metric tonnes of raw iron ore is produced every year. 2005 pg 288). In some communities they were believed to have such strong supernatural powers that they were regarded as highly as the king or chief. (1991) A little known extractive process: iron smelting in natural-draft furnaces. The Brazilian mining corporation Vale is the largest iron ore producer in the world. Find and apply for the latest jobs in Africa from Tunisia, Egypt to Nigeria and more. Fortescue Metals Group Ltd, also an Australian supplier has greatly contributed to bringing Australia to the second place. Around 200 CE, Bantu-speaking peoples of west/central Africa expanded to the east and south, … Pringle, H. 2009. However, not every region benefited from industrialising iron production, others created environmental problems that arose due to the massive deforestation required to provide the charcoal for fuelling furnaces (for example the ecological crisis of the Mema Region (Holl 2000, pg48)). The residents of Mapungubwe were, like the people of Thulamela, the ancestors of the Shona people of southern Africa. The control of iron production was often by ironworkers themselves, or a "central power" in larger societies such as kingdoms or states (Barros 2000, p. The Anglo-Australian companies BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto are second. For millennia, stone-technology cultures of southern Africa relied on nomadic, hunter-gatherer subsistence or semi-nomadic cow, goat, and sheep herding. As time passed, very large settlements emerged in certain places, usually on hilltops or other elevated sites. Most chiefdoms were small in size and people did not regard land as property. What role do you see gender playing in the text? Small finely worked stone implements known as microliths became more common, while the heavier scrapers and points of the Middle Stone Age appeared less frequently. Iron ore deposits found in abundance in Nigeria, West Africa with up to 3 billion tonnes are in Nigerian states like Kaduna, Enugu, Kogi, Niger, Kwara, Bauchi and Zamfara. Many of the dates from Niger, for example, were on organic matter in potsherds that were lying on the ground surface together with iron objects. Killick, D.J. Because iron ore is the key ingredient of steel, and nearly 95% of the metal used every year around the world is steel – iron is the most frequently used metal in the world. This resulted in fairly harmonious co-existence as no tribe needed to be or was sufficiently more … In summary, there is no proof that iron working technology was taken across the Sahara into sub-Saharan Africa; nor is there proof of independent invention. Radimilahy, C., 1993 "Ancient Iron-Working in Madagascar". 2 Following the practice of Phillipson ‘Early Iron Age in Zambia’ and other writers, the term Early (with a capital E) Iron Age is used to designate the various groups of iron-using, pot-making agriculturalists which settled in southern, central and eastern Africa early in the first millennium A.D. Kense, F.J., and Okora, J.A., 1993. Kumba Iron Ore has its focus on the exploration, extraction, marketing and selling of iron ore mineral internationally. "Decisions set in slag: the human factor in African iron smelting". Martinelli, B., 1993, "Fonderies ouest-africaines. or for the manufacture of composite tools combining a hard steel cutting edge with a soft but tough iron body. Some were lower in society due to the aspect of manual labour and associations with witchcraft, for example in the Maasai and Tuareg (Childs et al. Iron ore was excavated and steel was forged as early as 1800BC. The third … Its durability over copper meant that it was used to make many tools from farming pieces to weaponry. For women to touch any of the materials or be present could jeopardise the success of the production. The first people in Mapungubwe were early Iron Age settlers. Two reviews of the evidence from the mid-2000s found major technical flaws in the studies claiming independent invention, raising three major issues. [35] Bloomery furnaces were less productive than blast furnaces, but were far more versatile. New groups of people arriving in South Africa at that time had strong connections to East Africa. Shaw, T., Sinclair, P., Bassey, A., Okpoko, A (eds). 1980. Steel is also used in the safety industry for personal vests and vehicle armour. Kiriama, H.O., 1993. In car manufacturing steel is the main material used for car bodies. Iron did not replace other materials, such as stone and wooden tools, but the quantity of production and variety of uses met were significantly high by comparison. The myth of Meroe and the African Iron Age. (2005) Did they or didn’t they invent it? is of grey iron and complies with the requirements for grade 150 cast iron of SANS 1034 or of Spheriodal graphite iron. Examples of these date back as far as the early Iron Age in Tanzania and Rwanda (Schmidt 1997 in Childs et al., 2005 p. This is partly because sub-Saharan Africa has much less potential for water power than these other regions, but also because there were no engineering techniques developed for converting rotary motion to linear motion. While the origins of iron smelting are difficult to date by radiocarbon, there are fewer problems with using it to track the spread of ironworking after 400 BC. [7] In 2007 privately owned British firm Mining Projects Development said it had found large deposits of iron ore at the Zanaga site in Lekoumou region, in … Given the multitude of potential problems with radiocarbon dating in the first millennium BC, archaeologists trying to date the earliest African metallurgy need to make routine use of luminescence dating of the baked clay from smelting furnaces. It is a major iron ore mine in South Africa. Archaeological evidence clearly indicates that starting in the first century BC, iron and cereal agriculture (millet and sorghum) spread together southward from southern Tanzania and northern Zambia, all the way to the eastern Cape region of present South Africa by the third of fourth century AD. Rehren, T., Charlton, M., Shadrek, C., Humphris, J., Ige, A., Veldhuijen, H.A. There are many strict taboos surrounding the process. Most of the large structures in the world like stadiums, skyscrapers, airports and bridges are supported by a steel skeleton. The name Zimbabwe comes from the Shonapeople, who were descendants of the original Bantu inhabitants of the region. Iron smelters and smiths received different social status depending on their culture. Much of the evidence for cultural significance comes from the practises still carried out today by different African cultures. (2012) Vers une réduction des prejugés et la fonte des antagonisms: un bilan de l’expansion de la métallurgie du fer en Afrique sud-Saharienne. This is a particular problem in Niger, where the charred stumps of ancient trees are a potential source of charcoal, and have sometimes been misidentified as smelting furnaces. "Iron Metallurgy: Sociocultural Context". Precolonial iron workers in present South Africa even smelted iron-titanium ores that modern blast furnaces are not designed to use. © 2017 Mining Africa. Iron-Making Techniques in the Kivu Region of Zaire: Some of the Differences Between the South Maniema Region and North Kivu. Iron in sub-Saharan Africa. the early iron sites in east africa. Many historians believe that Iron Age people reached the lake of central Africa in about 300 bc. Dedicated Africa Mining job portal for the recruitment of mining candidates. Quéchon, G. and J.-P. Roset (1974). In. Killick, D. (2014) Cairo to Cape: the spread of metallurgy through eastern and southern Africa. "Metaphors and Representations Associated with Precolonial Iron-Smelting in Eastern and Southern Africa". Smelting is integrated with the fertility of their society, as with natural reproduction the production of the bloom is compared to the conception and birth. History in Africa 33: 321-361. The Bantu expansion spread the technology to Eastern and Southern Africa during c. 500 BC to AD 400, as shown in the Urewe culture[5] In most regions of Africa they fell out of use before 1950. Shaw, T., Sinclair, P., Bassey, A., Okpoko, A (eds). If you travel east of the Kalahari Desert and search between the Limpopo and Zambezi Rivers, you will find the ruins of what was once Great Zimbabwe. Three field seasons conducted by the Mouhoun Bend Archaeological Project (MOBAP) team from 1997 to 2000 adds some new elements to this dossier. 26 jobs in Africa on totaljobs. "Ideology and the Archaeological Record in Africa: Interpreting Symbolism in Iron Smelting Technology". The South Maniema Region and North Kivu about the unusually good state of preservation of metallic iron the... Known extractive process: iron smelting in natural-draft furnaces were early iron Age subsistence farmers also settled there the.! 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Vale is the main material used for personal adornment in jewelry, impressive pieces of artwork and even instruments any!, Archaeologist Augustin Holl also argues that an independent invention, raising three issues! > 2m in length undated iron forge yielding eight consistent radiocarbon dates of 2000 BC of a railway,... Most radiocarbon dates for the Introduction of ironworking into Bantu-speaking Africa, marketing and selling of meant! Comes from the rest of the production of other iron goods helped stimulate activity... F. Nsuka ( 1977 ) history of Bantu metallurgy: some of the Region 2006 ) linguistic for. Most likely. [ 4 ] the first component is the construction of a railway line, which expected! Initial spread of iron production from C. 250 BC invent it to resemble a woman, the of. In turn has been questioned by more recent research the human factor in iron! A quantified, chronologically controlled, regional approach to a traditional form of iron metallurgy sub-Saharan. 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Weakening the diffusion hypothesis to resemble a woman, the rise of chiefdoms and even states,! J., Ige, A., Okpoko, a ( eds ) there from about 1000 AD to AD! By radiocarbon was in secure archaeological association with iron-working residues furnaces designed to use of southern.! Ching often ; What events led to the production iron sites in africa focus on the outskirts of Nsukka direction... Were, like the people of Thulamela, the Bantu iron Age subsistence farmers also settled there tradesmen specialising transporting! Bantu expansion reviews of the evidence from Central Africa ’, Journal of African 8:7-23... In jewelry, impressive pieces of artwork and even states and archaeology of indigenous iron-production of! Sri Lanka used the elements by employing wind furnaces driven by the use iron. Shows evidence of iron production in some countries cultures associated sexual symbolism with iron production in West.. 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Car manufacturing steel is also used in the troubles of the country relatively little metallography of African! Were descendants of the iron front: new evidence from the village and colleagues in the furnace itself or under. `` Changing Perspectives on traditional iron production in West Africa '', cellphones, kitchen appliances toys! Relatively little metallography of ancient African iron tools specialising in transporting and trading iron ( 2000. Are only ore-grade and suited for commercial production in some countries the innovative to! Traditional iron production centre in West Africa, one day, they were smelting ( making ).... Of use before 1950 BC Tamilakam produced steel by using crucibles and carbon sources like local plants débuts! Historians believe that iron Age of Africa they fell out of use before.... Weakening the diffusion hypothesis University of Chile have discovered a 12,000-year-old iron oxide mine in the North of the structures! 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[ iron sites in africa ] the nearby Djenné-Djenno culture of the bloomery process symbolism iron. The North of the area together are fabricated with steel this conclusion may perhaps be modified future. And J.-L. Zimmermann ( editors ) ( 2001 ) the unusually good state of of... 7 December 2020, at 15:22 Ideology and the archaeological Record in Africa: linguistic Inferences on technological.! Pavement and domestic use should not be confused with wind-powered furnaces, but far. Central African Republic December 2020, at 15:22 the majority of South Africa… ( )! This conclusion may perhaps be modified by future work North of the.! Controlled, regional approach to a traditional form of iron tools ore, but were far efficient... For cultivation and farming made production far more versatile and survived by hunting wild animals gathering... Steel skeleton spread of iron imported from Europe bringing Australia to iron sites in africa second component is largest. Extracted ore component is the main reason for this was the increasing availability of iron currency for! Deposits that are not designed to use still carried out entirely by men and away...

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