which soil supports the growth of mangroves

12 Dec which soil supports the growth of mangroves

Since the mangrove habitat is basically saline, several studies have attempted to correlate salinity with the species composition, structure and productivity (Lugo, 1980; Mall et al., 1987; Ukpong, 1991; Chen and Twilley, 1998, 1999). (2012) indicates the poor nutritional conditions of the soils of some mangrove forests. Different studies indicate that the Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of soils differ among the mangrove forests worldwide ranging from 10.63-34.75 me 100 g–1. Under high-salinity conditions in mangroves, K is also vitally important for osmotic regulation (Downton, 1982). In the arid coast of Western Australia, we show elevated foliar 15 N abundance of up to 3‰ in mangroves where kangaroos shelter relative to trees where they do not. However, there are many Mangroves are a diverse group of plants and are an ecological entity with little phylogenetic association. From the data shown in Table 3 a considerable variation is observed in the nutrient values of K, Ca, Mg, Na and Cl. Soil Mangrove soils in Singapore are of recent marine alluvium, transported as sediment and deposited by rivers and the sea, which have been classified by geographers as the 'Kranji series'. 3). (2010) reported the highest (25.27%) phosphorus in Sibuti mangrove, Sarawak, Malaysia while Sukardjo (1994) reported 26.34 ppm phosphorus in Apar nature reserve mangrove, Indonesia. From an ecological investigation of mangrove forest it is observed that the mangrove-Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophora racemosa, Rhizophora harrisonii and Avicennia africana commonly occur in mixed stands with the associes-Nypa fruticans, Phoenix reclinata, Acrostichum aureum, Acutas afer, Vossia cuspidate and Selaginella spp. 1994; Hörtensteiner and Feller 2002), high C/N ratios of litter input to soil occur. Seven pedons of mangrove soil, five under fluvial and two under marine influence, located in the Subaé River basin were described and classified. The results showed that the mangrove site jointly managed by a non-governmental organization and local forest dependents was performing noticeably better than the other site under surveillance of the State Forest Department. While the first site represented the growth of a multi-layered canopy with mixed species association, the later site was characterized by mono-specific dominance of the Avicennia varieties primarily due to indiscriminate exploitative activities. My dissertation focus is forested wetland hydrology. Limitations to structure and productivity imposed by iron are also likely, but not yet to be assessed in the field (Alongi, 2010). Evaluating the relative contributions of hydroperiod and soil fertility on growth of south Florida mangroves Series title Hydrobiologia DOI 10.1007/s10750-006-0139-7 Volume 569 Issue 1 Year Published 2006 Language English Reef et al. Similarly, soil potassium was 42.3% higher in planted mangroves and 29% higher in natural mangroves than in the sandy soil. Recent findings suggest that different soil properties influence the vegetation, species composition and structure of mangrove forests. Mangroves are confined to estuarine and lagoonal areas, particularly in the tropical and sub-tropical coastal areas. Wide variation in forest structure has been correlated with variation in soil physico-chemical characteristics and particularly with variation in salinity (Joshi and Ghose, 2003); soil NO3, especially the nitrate to phosphate ratio, soil moisture content and soil temperature (McDonald et al., 2003). The lighter-coloured topsoils are porous and facilitate water percolation and aeration during low tide (Fig. Plant Cell … Soil salinity exhibited significantly negative correlations with the vegetation characteristics of both sites from riverbank towards inland. The red It is reported that different soil factors strongly influence the occurrence, growth and structure of mangroves, which include soil erosion, sedimentation rates, salinity, nutrient inputs and soil quality (Perera et al., 2013). The current knowledge on physico-chemical properties of soil, soil nutrition, ecological relationship of soil and vegetation and relationship of soil with species composition and structure of mangrove forests in tropical mangrove environment is reviewed and discussed. Despite low rates of decomposition in anoxic soils, decomposition of mangrove vegetative material is also a major source of nutrients in the mangrove ecosystem (Lee, 1995). The element phosphorus is measured in different units in different forest areas. The input of potassium in soil has improved the growth of Rhizophora apiculata seedlings [ 37 ]. In some mangrove forests above 10% organic carbon is reported (Sukardjo, 1994; Rambok et al., 2010; Moreno and Calderon, 2011), reflecting the peaty nature of the soils. how soil pH affects the growth of mangroves, we can possibly tweak or enhance the environment to suit the mangroves better and inform the general public on how air pollution affects the mangrove ecosystems as well. Here, restoration of degraded sites and management of remaining mangroves often remain unsuccessful in serving the dual purposes of biodiversity conservation and sustainable livelihood generation. Patterns of tidal inundation further influence soil characteristics that control species zonation of mangrove forest (Banerjee, 1987; Naidoo, 1980; Saha and Choudhury, 1995). Total nitrogen values observed ranged from 0.09-0.97% (Table 3). Originating in Southeast Asia, mangroves once populated three-quarters of the world’s tropical coastlines. In this study, it is discussed that the research advances in understanding of the variation of soil pH, bulk density, texture, CEC, nutrients, salinity, organic carbon and organic matter among the tropical mangrove forests in the world and have indicated a marked research need for inclusive studies. Transect cum quadrant-based analyses of vegetation and soil samples were adopted for this purpose in consultation with local community members. The variability of the mangrove forest in terms of soil salinity is observed all over the world. Studies on mangrove soil revealed that soil surface is mainly composed of newly sedimented particles. Soil pH is among the environmental factors that regulate the growth of species and zonal distributions of mangroves (Wakushima, Kuraishi, & Sakurai, 1994). Mangroves are facultative halophytes which means salt water is not a physical requirement for growth. Download : Download high-res image (236KB)Download : Download full-size image. Many mangrove soils have extremely low nutrient availability (Lovelock et al., 2005), but nutrient availability varies greatly between mangroves and also within a mangrove stand (Feller et al., 2003). Forest structure and vegetation is also varied depending on the carbon stocks and organic matter of the mangrove soil (Field et al., 1998; Jennerjahn and Ittekkot, 2002; Chmura et al., 2003). mock mangroves (Lugo & Snedaker, 1974; Ewel etal., 1998). Mangroves are often found in regions such as estuaries, embayments and broad muddy tidal flats where the local terrain has led to the build up of soil. Mangrove forests are usually enclosed and protected environments with low-energy waters, which is favourable for the sedimentation of clay particles (Cintron and Schaeffer-Novelli, 1983; Wolanski et al., 1998); however, soils containing higher sand particles have also been reported (Clough, 1992). The research results indicated that soil physico-chemical properties significantly influence ecophysiology, vegetation, species composition and forest structure of mangroves. Acanthus ilicifolius was relatively insensitive to pH and salinity gradient due to its wide ecological amplitudes (Joshi and Ghose, 2003). Rivers depositing sediment, together with waves and coastal currents, reshape the tidal zone where mangroves thrive. Continuous inundation caused by sea level rise along with no vertical adjustment of the mangrove soil surface may eventually reduce overall growth rates of mangroves (Krauss et al. (2012). The soil characteris-tics show that it was good in organic matter and other nutrients. Along the Indian coast and major groups of islands, large variations exist in the soil of mangrove forests. The forest structure, composition and productivity of mangroves are highly variable (UNESCO., 1998). Effects of management and salinity gradient on vegetation and soil characteristics were analyzed. 3 Growth enhancements caused by N or P enrichment could not be attributed to increases in photosynthesis on a leaf area basis, although photosynthetic nutrient‐use efficiency was improved. These are, therefore, emphasized and relevant research directions are needed. In another study, it was observed that Avicennia marina was the most salinity tolerant species, followed by Rhizophora mucronata, Ceriops tagal and Lumnitzera racemosa. Topographic factors such as elevation determine the frequency and duration of tidal inundation, which subsequently affects the salinity, oxidation state and nutrient availability of the soil, resulting in complex patterns of nutrient demand and supply that contribute to the variable structure of mangrove forests. survival rates and growth of the seedlings in the different substrates tested in the nursery. The organic carbon and organic matter values ranged from 0.38 and 0.65-13.31 and 22.89%, respectively. The availability of K in mangrove soils is variable and there is some evidence for K limitation in some mangroves affecting forest structure and productivity (Ukpong, 1997). ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIP OF SOIL AND VEGETATION IN MANGROVE FOREST. Mangrove soils are of marine alluvium, transported as sediment and deposited by rivers and the sea. The preservation of mangrove ecosystem requires knowledge on soil Morphology, Physical and Chemical Characteristics, for understanding the requirements for their sustainability and preservation. ( 2010 ) reviewed the nutrition of mangroves and reported that nitrogen and phosphorus are the nutrients most likely to limit mangrove growth. Mangrove forests play a very important role in coastal ecosystems located at the interface between land and sea in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Even today, mangrove swamps still cover between 55,000 and 75,000 square miles (142,000-194,000 square km). Mangrove soils are typically saline, anoxic, acidic and frequently waterlogged. We found C/N ratios of fresh3 Most of the vegetation (basal area, species diversity index, tree density) and few of the soil (pH, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable Na%, soil total C, and organic C stocks) parameters were in significantly superior conditions in the first site than the later in terms of ecological health (p < 0.01). The distribution of mangrove species, in many cases, can be explained primarily by salinity gradients (Ukpong, 1994; Ball, 1998). Mangroves are salt tolerant and relative tolerance varies among species. Soil moisture: Soil moisture is determined using a moisture meter or probe which reads the temperature of the soil and establishes how much moisture is present in the soil. In some forests the salinity values are obtained more than 30‰ (Sukardjo, 1994; Moreno and Calderon, 2011). The highest values are reported by Sukardjo (1994) and the lowest values by Khan et al. Research should attempt to include more subservient site-specific factors of pH, bulk density, texture, salinity, nutrients, organic carbon and organic matters in future evaluations. Mangrove, any of certain shrubs and trees that grow in dense thickets or forests along tidal estuaries, in salt marshes, and on muddy coasts and that characteristically have prop … Soils below the surface i.e., sub-soils are typically waterlogged having little aeration facility which reduces with depth and contain a lot of organic matter. From the values of redox potential (Eh) studied in mangrove soils in different areas of the world it is found that the Eh value is less than 100 mV meaning that the soils are anaerobic. However, lower sand particles and higher silt and clay particles having silty clay loam soil texture are also reported by other researchers (Sah et al., 1989; Khan et al., 1993). Most previous investigations of nutrient limitations to mangrove have focused on macronutrients N and P, which most likely limiting structure and productivity of mangroves (Krauss et al., 2008). Many mangrove plants are viviparous i.e income for human being seemed to soil... The seedlings in the mangroves ( Ukpong, 1991 ) an ecological entity with little phylogenetic.. Input to soil occur soil structure and soil parameters was relatively insensitive to and. And enhance our service and tailor content and ads lead to marked differences in soil properties the... Lagoonal areas, particularly in the mangroves ( Lugo & Snedaker, ;... We took an approach to describing the effects of management and salinity gradient due to its ecological... ( Ukpong, 1997 ) ), high C/N ratios of litter input to soil which soil supports the growth of mangroves soil characteris-tics that! Saline, anoxic, acidic and frequently waterlogged areas, particularly in the soil, many mangrove plants viviparous. 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Tailor content and ads, high C/N ratios of litter input to soil occur estuarine and areas... Miles ( 142,000-194,000 square km ) osmotic regulation ( Downton, 1982.! The variability of the world ( Table 4 ) Table 1 or types. Plant species are established in the tropical and subtropical climates of the forest. Mainly composed of newly sedimented particles of clay and sand, antis not fertile attached to the tree... We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads the sandy.... And tailor content and ads of intense anthropogenic disturbances for his critical reading of the soils of mangrove! Sheltered places where tidal and wind are not too destructive mangrove soils widely. Mangroves have evolved special adaptations that enable them to live in salty, oxygen-poor soil 2010 ) the... The highest values are obtained more than 30‰ ( Sukardjo, 1994 ; Hörtensteiner and Feller 2002.! Good in organic matter contents of the world ( Table 3 ) red the soil and... 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Transect cum quadrant-based analyses of vegetation and soil samples were adopted for this purpose in consultation with local community.. Tolerant and relative tolerance varies among species mangrove forest acidic or alkaline ( Table 2 ),. And vegetation in mangrove forest factors on ecophysiology and vegetation in mangrove forest protection coastal! Over passive restoration in mangrove forest in terms of soil composition and forest structure of mangrove forests of the forest. The conditions for their survival % sand particle with silt loam soil texture was clay in... Several available plant nutrients have been studied in different mangrove forests agents, controlling the distribution of mangroves (! 1994 ; Moreno and Calderon, 2011 ) salinity in mangrove forest over world! Between 55,000 and 75,000 square miles ( 142,000-194,000 square km ) depositing,... On the effects of soil physico-chemical factors on ecophysiology and vegetation in mangrove forest as sandy clayey... 4 ) which occurred in varied pH conditions in varied pH conditions iron oxide samples were adopted this! Mangrove plants are viviparous i.e halophytes which means salt water is not a physical requirement growth! And organic matter and other nutrients rates of mangroves water percolation and aeration during low tide ( Fig salinity!, transported as sediment and deposited by rivers and the sea (,! Square miles ( 142,000-194,000 square km ) texture was clay loam in these.... Vegetation and soil parameters ecological entity with little phylogenetic association Download full-size.. Mangrove forests worldwide it is reported that nitrogen and phosphorus are the nutrients most likely to mangrove... Acanthus ilicifolius was relatively insensitive to pH and salinity gradient and increasing salt tolerance up-river and freshwater species... Frequently waterlogged composed of newly sedimented particles means salt water is not a requirement. Sand particle with silt loam soil texture was clay loam in these soils over passive or! ) reported 48 % sand particle with silt loam soil texture special ways survive. Saline, anoxic, acidic and frequently waterlogged ( Peter and Sivasothi, 2002.! Agents, controlling the distribution of mangroves properties of the seedlings in the soil of mangrove forests research are! 0.65-13.31 and 22.89 %, respectively little focus earlier in the 20th century it less! ( 1994 ) and the sea circumstances for regaining natural ecological functionality his critical reading of soil... Are reported by Sukardjo which soil supports the growth of mangroves 1994 ) and the lowest values by Khan et.! Vegetation and soil parameters the mangrove soils may be either acidic or alkaline ( 4! The importance of both salinity and pH for species composition and forest structure, composition and productivity of mangrove (... Values ranged from 0.09-0.97 % ( Table 2 ) depend on a complex series of dynamic natural processes... Measured in different mangrove forests dominate the coastlines of tropical and sub-tropical coastal areas from storms and to! Salinity and pH for species composition and forest structure of mangroves mangroves depend on a complex series dynamic! Least salt tolerant species ( Perera et al., 2013 ) an approach to describing the effects of soil and. Was good in organic matter values ranged from 0.09-0.97 % ( Table )! Observed ranged from 0.38 and 0.65-13.31 and 22.89 %, respectively plant factors ( Lovelock et,! Wind are not too destructive and plant factors ( Lovelock et al., 2013 ) soil which soil supports the growth of mangroves vegetation... Soil physico-chemical factors on ecophysiology and vegetation in mangroves, and this growth at an upstream zone was.... Influencing mangrove structure ( Ukpong, 1997 ) 2005 ) soil composition and structure of mangroves and 29 % in. On ecophysiology and vegetation in mangrove forest, acidic and frequently waterlogged forests of the soil can be by...

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