12 Dec roman civil war
Galba was proclaimed emperor from Spain; he entered Rome in September but was murdered and succeeded by Otho; meanwhile Vitellius was proclaimed emperor in Germany and Otho committed suicide. The two lovers committed suicide a year later, allowing Octavian to seize the dying Roman Republic. Rome’s first civil war stemmed from a ruthless power struggle between the politician-generals Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Caesar quickly gained a significant victory at the Battle of Thapsus in 46 BC over the forces of Metellus Scipio, Cato the Younger and Juba, who all committed suicide. As crossing the Rubicon with an army was prohibited, lest a returning general attempt a coup d'etat, that triggered the ensuing civil war between Caesar and Pompey. The alliance was further consolidated by Pompey's marriage to Julia, the daughter of Caesar, in 59 BC. When Caesar was in Gaul and organized the conquered territories, Pompey and Crassus tried to enlarge their power too. Eventually, in March 49 BC, Pompey escaped and fled by sea to Epirus, leaving Caesar in complete command of Italy.. In any event, Caesar was besieged at Alexandria and after Mithridates relieved the city, Caesar defeated Ptolemy's army and installed Cleopatra as ruler with whom he fathered his only known biological son, Ptolemy XV Caesar, better known as "Caesarion". With Pompey dead, Caesar’s victory was all but secured. The political situation is discussed in depth in the ancient histories of Appian and Cassius Dio. Vitellius was a cruel and gluttonous ruler—he supposedly feasted at banquets up to four times a day—but he wasn’t long for the throne. …the decisive engagement in the Roman civil war (49–45 bce) between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great. Caesar's Civil War (49–45 BC) was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. While Caesar had been in Egypt and installed Cleopatra as sole ruler, four of his veteran legions encamped, under the command of Mark Antony. (Credit: Dayton Museum of Art/Wikimedia Commons). Civil war between factions of the Roman Republic from 49 to 45 BC, March on Rome and the early Hispanian campaign, Later campaign in Africa and the war on Cato, Longhurst (2016) "Caesar's Crossing of the Adriatic Countered by a Winter Blockade During the Roman Civil War", https://www.thoughtco.com/ancient-roman-history-optimates-119359, https://www.unrv.com/julius-caesar/crossing-the-rubicon.php, "C. Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Civil War, CAESar's COMMENTARIES OF THE CIVIL WAR. The murder sparked a period of instability and civil war that eventually left Caesar’s heir Octavian and his general Marc Antony as the main contenders for control of Rome. Meanwhile, the aristocrats, including Metellus Scipio and Cato the Younger, joined Pompey there and left a rear guard at Capua. FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. Welcome to the Roman Civil War. It began as a series of political and military confrontations, between Julius Caesar (100–44 BC), his political supporters (broadly known as Populares), and his legions, against the Optimates (or Boni), the politically conservative and socially traditionalist faction of the Roman Senate, who were supported by Pompey (106–48 BC) and his legions. The soldiers' resistance collapsed. The mapsheet, overlaid with a hexagonal grid, covers the important areas of the Roman empire, including Italy, Greece, Asia and Egypt. As the mayhem mounted, the Empire briefly splintered into three separate states. Onroute he started the Siege of Massilia. Through that reverse psychology, Caesar re-enlisted four enthusiastic veteran legions to invade North Africa without spending a single sesterce. Caesar, with the help of Pompey and Crassus, evaded the Senate's decrees by legislation passed through the popular assemblies. Near Pharsalus, Caesar pitched a strategic bivouac. It was fought with terrible losses on both sides.  Caesar now had three veteran legions and fifty-three cohorts of recruits at Corfinium. Pompey defeated Caesar in 48 BC at the Battle of Dyrrhachium, but was himself defeated much more decisively at the Battle of Pharsalus. Following several months of maneuvering, Octavian and Antony and Cleopatra’s forces finally faced off at 31 B.C.’s naval battle at Actium. Caesar's Civil War. Following this, Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavius would fight yet another civil war against remnants of the Optimates and Liberatores faction, ultimately resulting in the establishment of the Roman Empire. As the battle turned against him, he abandoned part of his fleet and fled with Cleopatra to Alexandria. 1 History 2 The Heroes of Olympus 2.1 The Lost Hero 2.2 The Son of Neptune 2.3 The Mark of Athena The battle lasted for many days. The various governorships gave Caesar command of an army of (initially) four legions. At Ilerda he defeated the politically-leaderless Pompeian army, commanded by the legates Lucius Afranius and Marcus Petreius. The term of his proconsulship, which allowed him immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the customary one year. The era of the Roman Republic and early Empire was a time of great military conflict. Unfortunately for Otho, his ascension corresponded with the rise of other would-be rulers. Caesar, however, had been reinforced by two more legions from Gaul (the eighth and the twelfth) and twenty-two cohorts of recruits (recruited by Curio) and in fact outnumbered Domitius five to three. Caesar feigned indignation and then allowed himself to be won over. That night Anthony, Cassius, Curio and Caelius Rufus fled from Rome and headed north to join Caesar.. Ancient Rome waged many campaigns of conquest during its history, but its most influential wars may have been the ones it fought against itself. With a loss of 1,000 veteran legionaries, Caesar was forced to retreat southwards. Pharsalus, Battle of. Afterwards, Caesar renewed his pursuit of Pompey in Greece. . The latter arrangement triggered the conspiracy leading to his assassination on the Ides of March in 44 BC. Afterwards pacifying Roman Hispania. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! The historian Appian states that Pharnaces died in battle, but Cassius Dio says that Pharnaces was captured and then killed. Caesar's Civil War resulted from the long political subversion of the Roman Government's institutions, which began with the career of Tiberius Gracchus, continuing with the Marian reforms of the legions, the bloody dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, and completed by the First Triumvirate over Rome. Nothing worked, and the mutineers continued to call for their discharges and back pay. The game is strategic in scale, with units representing legions, fleets and allied units on both sides. Meanwhile, Caesar had been elected to his third and fourth terms as consul in 46 BC (with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus) and 45 BC (sine collega, without a colleague). Events of the civil war in Europe. After several months, Caesar finally arrived to address the legions in person. The Civil War is a tense and gripping depiction of his struggle with Pompey over the leadership of Republican Rome - a conflict that spanned the entire Roman world, … Returning to Rome in December of 49 BC, Caesar was appointed dictator, with Mark Antony as his Master of the Horse. The following year, 69 A.D. would be The Year of the Four Emperors, when Rome was ruled in rapid succession by Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian. He asked the troops what they wanted with his cold voice. The legions were waiting for their discharges and the bonus pay that Caesar had promised them before the Battle of Pharsalus. Caesar kept his dictatorship for eleven days, a tenure sufficient to win him a second term as consul with Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus as his colleague. At first, recognising the threat, he made offers of submission with the sole object of gaining time until Caesar's attention fell elsewhere. (Credit: ullstein bild via Getty Images). Caesar also knew that he did not have the funds to give the soldiers their back pay, much less the money needed to induce them to re-enlist for the North African campaign. Caesar soon emerged as a champion of the common people, and advocated a variety of reforms. In the North, Caesar marches forth with the XIII Legion, Convening a War cabinet of his ablest and experienced Commanders and allies. , chapter 8", Lewis E 83 Historia belli civilis inter Caesarem et Pompeium at OPenn, Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Caesar%27s_Civil_War&oldid=993528533, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, March 9, Caesar's advance against Pompeian forces in, July 30, Caesar surrounded Afranius and Petreius's army in, August 2, Pompeians in Ilerda surrendered to Caesar, September 6, Massilia surrendered to Caesar, coming back from Hispania, October, Caesar appointed Dictator in Rome; presides over his own election as consul and resigns after eleven days. Sulla was forced to march his 40,000 troops on Rome a second time. The following year, Caesar defeated the last of the Optimates under his former lieutenant Labienus in the Battle of Munda and became Dictator perpetuo (Dictator in perpetuity or Dictator for life) of Rome. Over the next few years, Rome’s leadership devolved into a tangled web of conspiracies, intrigue and pretenders to the throne. The general population, which regarded Caesar as a hero, approved of his actions. Knowing that he hoped to become consul when his governorship expired, the Senate, politically fearful of him, ordered him to resign his command of his army. The Roman world was united under the sole leadership of Octavian, who annexed Egypt. The following article answers some basic questions on what defines a civil war outside of the American context. Offended, the Senate demanded for him to disband his army immediately, or he would be declared an enemy of the people. 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